PortuguêsEnglish
Dogs

Introduction

The dog is an animal that was domesticated thousands of years, and therefore developed an affective behavior, sensitive and receptive to the man.

All dogs, whether for companionship, work, exhibition, hunting or guard, are devoted to their owners, their affection and loyalty in return only requiring care and attention.

When you decide to have a dog, ask yourself if you are prepared to clean up excrements or if you have some personal items eatable at home, and have an idea of how much you spend on your food and veterinary care.

Having a dog means to change our responsibilities and our habits for a few years, to have time to play with him, to teach, treat, and take a walk, even if it’s raining, or simply not in mood.

 

Baths

You should bath your dog with the fewest times possible. The frequency of the baths must be carried out varies from breed to breed, and often depend on the individual dog. You should avoid washing the dogs with undercoat (example: Siberian Husky).
It is advisable to brush the hair before the bath to remove the largest number of old hair and untangle all the knots.
The temperature of bath water should be slightly higher than the body temperature of dogs ( 39º C ).
Shampoos should seek to preserve the characteristics of the skin (pH between 5.5 and 7.5) and should be suitable for the hair. Fabric softeners can also be used in certain types of coats.
The drying of the hair, in the case of longer fur and dense, it must be carried out using a dryer.

 

Nutrition

A good nutritional program tailored to different stages of your dog’s life is essential to your health and wellbeing.
The dry food (ration) is an excellent source of fats and carbohydrates, and consists of the best form of feeding, since that you choose a brand of good quality. There are many foods for dogs in the market, but not all brands are of good quality, and do not forget that not always the best-known brand and/or higher price corresponds to the best product.

The ration can be left in the bowl throughout the day
The consistency of hard grains to feed the dog, helps him to exercise the periodontium, and reduces the accumulation of tartar on the teeth.
The wet food (canned) is quite tasty, but will only keep fresh a few hours. However, this kind of food is more expensive in relation to ration, and in addition to being comprised of a large percentage of water, it still have in its composition relatively large quantities of dyes and preservatives. The remains of foods should always be discarded.

If you prefer to feed him with homemade food, you may give him vegetables, yogurt, cereal, cottage cheese, rice, pasta, fish and white meat (except pork). Foods should be cooked without fat and without spices, with just a little salt, and must be served to the ambient temperature. Never give your dog bones or spines, derived from pork, sausages, cheese, sweets.
The remaining portions of food of the owners are not food indicated for the dogs. If your dog only eat homemade food, ask your veterinarian if he needs to be supplemented with vitamins and minerals.

Water, fresh and clean, must always be available.
Most prepared food of good quality are properly formulated and do not require supplements of vitamins or minerals. Never give your dog calcium and vitamins without having been recommended by your veterinarian. The excess, as their absence, are harmful to his health.

 

Pregnancy

During the pregnancy, the energy necessities of the females not only increase because they have to support, not only their own body, but also nourish the growing fetus.
The feeding of a pregnant bitch should be properly considered. Too much food promotes obesity and problems during delivery, and low levels of nutrients can cause miscarriages or birth defects in fetuses, or even death of dogs after delivery. The duration of pregnancy in females can ranging from 58 to 72 days (average 61 to 63 days).
In the 2/3 initials of the gestation, the growth of the fetus is limited, so there is no need to change the diet of the dog.
In the last 3 weeks, the embryo development is exponential, and the energy needs of the female grow substantially.
At this stage, the increase in volume of the mother's uterus does not allow a great expansion of the stomach, disabling therefore the ingestion of great amounts of food. So, to compensate the high energy needs of the dog, you should gradually increase, only about 10 to 15%, the weekly amount of food, and provide a nutrient rich diet high in energy, but easily digestible.
You can find specific diets on the market for females in gestation and lactation. Alternatively, you can feed her with rations for growing dogs.

Some dogs may experience a decrease or even stop your appetite on or before delivery.

 

Breastfeeding
Should only be administered calcium supplements when starting breastfeeding, and always under the supervision of the veterinarian.
The milk of a female is much richer in calories, protein, fat and minerals than cow's milk.
The amount of milk that a female produces varies depending on the number of puppies, and the stage of lactation.
One female with 4 puppies produces, on average, throughout lactation, a quantity of milk corresponding to twice their weight.
The peak lactation is reached by the end of 3 weeks after birth, decreasing until the 6th or 8th week, time of termination.
During lactation, the energy needs of the female increases faster than their protein needs.
You can choose to leave food available, or feed her 3 or 4 times a day, but remember that you must provide food of high energetic value, with good quality protein and highly digestible.

 

NEEDS OF A FEMALE IN BREASTFEEDING IN RELATION TO WATER HAS AN HUGE INCREASE, SO IT SHOULD BE PROVIDED AND REPLACED SEVERAL TIMES A DAY.
The females should be dewormed a week before the expected date of delivery, and must be repeated, along with the puppies at 2 and 4 weeks after delivery.
The females must be previously vaccinated against major diseases, so that they can pass to the puppies through their milk, the antibodies (which act as defenses against these diseases), they need very early in life, and to initiate its immunization schedule.